減少以補充接受問題

S = "On input <M,w>:
Construct M':
M' = "On input x:
if x in L(M):  #Fishy statement
accept
else: reject
Run R on <M'>
if R accepts: accept; if R rejects: reject


When reducing $L_1$ to $L_2$, we need to come up with a computable mapping $f$ such that $x \in L_1$ iff $f(x) \in L_2$. We don't start with a Turing machine deciding $L_2$ and then construct one for deciding $L_1$, although this construction can easily be accomplished using the mapping $f$. The reason we refrain from doing so is that sometimes we already know that $L_2$ is undecidable, and yet there is merit in saying that $L_1$ reduces to $L_2$, since $L_1$ might have an even strong guarantee of "hardness"; this sort of thinking leads to classical recursion theory.

Regarding your construction, there are two problems: (1) it doesn't involve $w$, (2) when you write "if $x \in L(M)$", you actually mean "simulate $M$ on $x$"; this simulation could halt, or it could never halt. Generally speaking, when a Turing machine never halts, then we say that it rejects. See if this fits with what you were trying to accomplish.