AmélieNothomb的Soif中希臘人對全知的概念的含義


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AmélieNothomb的小說 Soif Thirst )向我們講述了耶穌在被釘十字架前夕的回憶錄。耶穌通過指稱他的無知是不完美的,來捍衛對他的指責。我從兩段書中了解到,他對未來有些了解,但不是全部。實際上,耶穌說:

My knowledge of the times is no different from that of my destiny: I know Τι, I do not know Πως.

(我的翻譯:我只有法文原版。)以及其他地方:

"He is omniscient, isn't he?"

Good question. I always know Τι, and never Πως.

然後最後一段繼續用語法術語描述這種差異:

I know the compléments d'objet and never the compléments circonstantiels.

我不確定這些術語的英文含義,因為我不確定他們的英語水平,而且,這不是我的問題的重點,這是:Τι和Πως是什麼?在Google上和字典中進行的搜索僅顯示模糊的翻譯("什麼"和"哪個"),而這些翻譯並不能解釋耶穌將以何種方式無所不知。無論如何,正如您可能期望的那樣,我找不到Τι和Πως是相反的哲學概念。

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The context of a word governs its meaning of course; but here are some usages of your words in question. There is not much of a mystery here.

τι (ti) is the genitive form of τις (tis) is an interrogative pronoun in direct, indirect, and rhetorical questions meaning “who?” “which (one)?”; “what?” usages include but are not limited to the following:

  1. In questions to which the answer “nobody” is expected
  2. Who? In the sense of what sort of (a) person?
  3. Who are you? What sort of man are you?
  4. Which of two?
  5. Why? For what reason?
  6. Why? For what purpose?
  7. With what? through whom?
  8. Because of what thing?
  9. In exclamation “how?”

πῶς (pos) as an interrogative, particle means how? In what way? In direct questions a. to determine how something is happening, or should happen; w. indicative how? or in what?

b. in questioning indicating surprise “how is it possible that?”; or “I do not understand how”; a series of questions expressing surprise, introduced again and again by Πως. E.g. how is it possible you do not understand me? (Mt 16:11; Mk 8:21); “how is it you have no faith?” (Mk 4:40; Mt 21:20).

c. in questions denoting disapproval or rejection “with what right?”; “how dare you?”; how is it that you are bold enough to come in here?”; “how can you say?”

d. in rhetorical questions that call an assumption into question or reject it altogether “how (could or should)?

e. in questions of deliberation with deliberative subjunctive “what comparison can we find in the kingdom?” (Mk 4:30); “how are you to escape? = “you will not escape at all” (Mt. 23:33).

  1. In direct questions—a. with indicative after verbs of knowing, saying, asking, etc. In exclamation “how. . . !”

Sources

Walter Bauer, et. al. A Greek English Lexicon of the New Testament, The University of Chicago Press, 1979.

Wesley J. Perschbacher, The Analytical Greek Lexicon, Hendrickson Publishers, 1990.

Bernard Taylor, Analytical Lexicon to the Septuagint, Hendrickson Publishers, 2010.