為什麼說唱音樂屬於搖滾名人堂?


38

今天上午被宣佈為2016年搖滾名人堂成員(coverage by Rolling Stone)。

如果您不熟悉的話,N.W.A. (名稱代表" Niggaz Wit Attitudes")是80年代後期開創性的西海岸黑幫說唱樂隊,其首張專輯 Straight Outta Compton 增長了三倍鉑金並重塑了說唱風格,標誌著西海岸說唱樂的興起以及與東海岸的競爭。其中包括備受爭議的熱門影片" Fuck Tha Police"。樂團的創始成員包括說唱歌手Easy-E,以及Dre和Ice Cube博士,他們繼續成功開展了個人說唱事業,如今已成為家喻戶曉的人物(Dre還是Apple的高管,他的初創公司Beats Music擁有於2014年以30億美元的價格被收購,Ice Cube將他的說唱成功帶入了好萊塢演員的職業生涯)。今年發行了該樂隊歷史上一部熱門傳記片,名為Straight Outta Compton,成為有史以來票房最高的音樂傳記片。基於電影宣傳海報的模因已經在互聯網上被廣泛使用,包括奧巴馬總統。就說唱音樂類型中音樂行為的影響和文化相關性而言,毫無疑問,N.W.A。名列前茅。

但是我很驚訝,因為我認為搖滾名人堂是搖滾風格的表演,而N.W.A.是說唱行為。如果它是"說唱/搖滾"交叉行為之一,那將是一回事,但N.W.A.是純黑幫說唱,不在任何類型的交集附近。為什麼將它們包含在有影響力的搖滾樂清單中?

滾石樂隊並沒有解決這個問題,只是說這是被引誘的第五個說唱行為。第一個是2007年的Grandmaster Flash。Wikipedia article for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame也沒有加入,只是說Fox News在2007年的入職培訓中引發了關於違規行為的爭議,從而證明了投票是固定的。但是沒有提到該行為是否應該有資格被考慮的問題。

我希望這不必多說,但讓我補充一點,我可以想像這可能是一個有爭議或種族分歧的問題。我不希望這樣,任何這樣的暗示都應理解為我的無知,而不是故意的種族誘餌。如果搖滾名人堂開始引入鄉村/西方或福音表演,或者嘻哈名人堂進行純粹的搖滾表演,而沒有任何隱含的判斷力來判斷一種音樂類型相對於另一種音樂類型的相對優點,我也會感到困惑。

4

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame does not seem to be exclusively for acts in (a narrow definition of) the Rock and Roll genre. https://rockhall.com/exhibits/the-roots-of-rock/ highlights inductees in both Country and Gospel genres. Donna Summer, Bob Marley, James Jamerson are all in there too.

What seems to have happened is that in its first year - 1986 - the induction process was quite focused on rock and roll and a family of closely surrounding genres. As the years go by, inductees start to include a wider range of artists in genres more distantly related to the work of those early pioneers.


7

The Rock And Roll Hall Of Fame covers a multitude of "popular" music that is legendary and groundbreaking. Their inductees range from Jelly Roll Morton to Metallica. The Hall seeks to induct artists who have influenced the evolution of music, and there is no doubt NWA (as both a group and individually) have changed the face of music.

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They seem to have a stick up their rear about Prog Rock for some reason. Still waiting for giants like Yes and ELP to get in; I'm not sure how anyone can say Chris Squire's bass playing didn't influence everyone who's picked up a bass since 1969.
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31

It's probably worth mentioning what "rock and roll" actually is. There are two definitions of "rock and roll".

The first definition is a genre popular of music that originated in the early to mid 1950s and ended in 1959, because of the following events:

  • The drafting of Elvis into the army (1958)
  • Little Richard retiring to become a preacher (1959)
  • The arrest of Chuck Berry (1959)
  • The scandal of Jerry Lee Lewis marrying his underage cousin (1958)
  • The death of Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and The Big Bopper in a plane crash (1959)
  • The payola scandal that rocked (no pun intended) the music industry, taking down a number of well-known rock and roll DJs, including Alan Freed, with it (1959)

Under this definition, "rock music" is a genre of music that began with "rock and roll" and branched out in a number of different ways. This definition also implies that the vast majority of the artists in the Rock and Roll Hall Of Fame shouldn't be in there, because they're not, strictly speaking, "rock and roll". They're a different rock sub-genre, like metal or grunge or surf rock or punk.

The second definition has the same start date, but essentially doesn't end, and instead somehow becomes the same as the all-encompassing genre of "rock", spawning all the sub-genres. It should be noted that early 1960s rock sounds fairly different than the rock and roll that ended under the assumptions of the first definition, as surf rock, and soul, the two biggest subgenres to originate around that time.

With the two different definitions of rock and roll established, there are certainly other acts that aren't "rock and roll" or "rock" that are in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.


Blues

  • Albert King
  • Bobby "Blue" Bland
  • Jimmy Reed
  • John Lee Hooker
  • Muddy Waters

Reggae

  • Bob Marley
  • Jimmy Cliff

Jazz

  • Charlie Christian
  • Miles Davis

Disco

  • Bee Gees (they were soft rock in the early 70s, but it's safe to say their disco stuff got them in)
  • Donna Summer

Pop

  • Abba
  • Madonna
  • Michael Jackson

And then there's the question of other genres, like Soul, Funk, Rhythm and blues, etc. Are these "rock and roll"? What about soft/folk rock, like Crosby, Stills, & Nash or The Byrds or James Taylor? Are they "rock and roll"?

What makes these artists and genres "rock and roll" but rap not? I don't think anything does, really. I think the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is really more about popular music than "rock and roll" or "rock", per se; it just started with the 1950s rock and roll era and moved forward.

But we can also look toward the Rock Hall for more information. First, you have their article entitled "Planet Rock: Hip Hop is Rock and Roll". As further evidence, look towards the eligibility requirements for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame:

To be eligible for induction as an artist (as a performer, composer, or musician) into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the artist must have released a record, in the generally accepted sense of that phrase, at least 25 years prior to the year of induction; and have demonstrated unquestionable musical excellence.

We shall consider factors such as an artist's musical influence on other artists, length and depth of career and the body of work, innovation and superiority in style and technique, but musical excellence shall be the essential qualification of induction.

Note that there is no stipulation of genre. All influential artists who have demonstrated unquestionable musical excellence are considered. Also, looking at that page, you'll see

Ballots are then sent to an international voting body of more than 600 artists, historians and members of the music industry.

I think this is the most important insight. 600 people decide what "rock and roll" within the scope of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame is. They have opened it up to fans to vote, but the top 5 artists by fan vote count for one ballot each. So, essentially, fan votes don't count, and 600 people choose what "music excellence" is and how "influential" and "innovative" an artist was.

This is why you have sub-genres that are seemingly left out of the Rock Hall, like progressive rock (as @JohnnyBones pointed out), electronic music, glam rock, art rock, and others. You also have countries left out, since almost every artist in the Rock Hall is from the U.S., the British Isles, Canada, or Australia; all English-speaking countries. And as you pointed out in your question, an executive decision was made to include the first rap artist, despite the fact that not enough of the 600 people were behind it. Whatever the 600 people say is "rock and roll" is rock and roll in terms of the Rock Hall.