I don't have a way to freeze the first column, but have a suggestion that may be a good workaround.
If your aim is to keep information in the first column on screen, you could try using web-parts. If you have the permissions to do so, you can edit the page and insert a new web part.
Display the same list in two web parts. You can connect the two lists so that they are linked - please see this post for more info on how to do that.
You can display different columns in the two web parts - configure two views for this purpose.
I would suggest ensuring that your first column is displayed in the upper web part - you can then filter/select an item from the first web part and the lower web part will filter to show the corresponding data.
Best of luck with it.