足球隊能否迫使其失敗,例如通過自己的目標?


38

格林尼治標準時間週四下午2點,將開始2018年世界杯H組足球比賽。格林尼治標準時間下午4點之前,該團體的命運將被決定。

讓我們假設日本排在第一,哥倫比亞排在第二(實際上這是一個不太可能的結果),因此他們都有資格進入第二輪。現在,格林尼治標準時間下午6點,G組比賽開始。比利時和英格蘭已經有資格參加下一輪比賽,但是為了確定誰先進入比賽,他們會互相競爭,從而決定下一輪比賽是誰。

現在,在合理的假設下,哥倫比亞是一支比日本更好的球隊(就國際足聯排名和世界杯經驗而言都是如此),您可以期待比利時和英格蘭希望在下一輪比賽中打入日本。不僅如此,排在第二位將意味著在下一輪比賽進入決賽之前避開巴西,阿根廷,烏拉圭,葡萄牙和/或法國。在資格賽的另一端,僅有的大球隊是西班牙和克羅地亞。因此,比利時和英格蘭成為該組第二名的巨大動力

現在,一支球隊獲得第二名的唯一確定方法是輸掉比賽(他們在其他所有方面並列,而排位賽的排名可能取決於公平競爭排名,該排名會在比賽過程中發生變化仍然匹配)。

這種情況很奇怪。不是兩個人都直接受益(因而付出努力),而是相反:他們從失敗中受益!因此,您可以想像既不付出任何努力,又或僅與替代者一起比賽,或者甚至在他們保持平局的情況下,都可以在加時賽的最後一刻得分!我想所有這些都是合法的,是嗎?可以針對此行為對團隊進行調查嗎?據推測,足球規則是為促進競爭行為而量身定做的,即促進勝利。也許有一些規則反對明顯的自我目標來導致失敗?

16

Sports governing bodies come down very, very heavily on teams deliberately losing - a very similar example to the England/Belgium World Cup situation is from badminton at the 2012 Olympics, when the teams which deliberately lost were disqualified. FIFA would almost certainly deal with any blatant deliberate losing in the same kind of way; see also a cricket match where a team deliberately lost which again resulted in their disqualification from the tournament.

There is nothing explicit within the main body of the Laws of the Game which requires teams attempt to win, although players can of course be cautioned for "unsporting behaviour". Is attempting to lose "unsporting"? I don't think there's a clear consensus on that one, but given the extensive media speculation on this one I'd hope that FIFA has given guidance to both the match officials and the teams involved.


12

I doubt something like AS Adema 149–0 SO l'Emyrne will happen here.

FIFA has some fair play regulations giving them the possibility to act accordingly and they're warned. It will be possible to disqualify a team trying to lose deliberately.

The Regulations for Russia 2018:

Rule 5.4:

On entering the competition, the participating member associations and their Team Delegation Members automatically undertake to:
(...)
g) observe the principles of fair play

or Rule 12.3

In addition, the players agree in particular to:
a) respect the spirit of fair play, non-violence and the authority of the match officials;

Both will dealt with according to Rule 12.1

Disciplinary incidents are dealt with in compliance with the FIFA Disciplinary Code in force and all relevant circulars and directives, with which the participating member associations undertake to comply.


The FIFA Disciplinary Code then states:

Rule 57:

Anyone who insults someone in any way, especially by using offensive gestures or language, or who violates the principles of fair play or whose behaviour is unsporting in any other way may be subject to sanctions in accordance with art. 10 ff.

In short, these punishments are possible:

10 Sanctions common to natural and legal persons

Both natural and legal persons are punishable by the following sanctions:

  • warning;
  • reprimand;
  • fine;
  • return of awards.

11 Sanctions applicable to natural persons

The following sanctions are applicable only to natural persons:

  • caution;
  • expulsion;
  • match suspension;
  • ban from dressing rooms and/or substitutes’ bench;
  • ban from entering a stadium;
  • ban on taking part in any football-related activity.

12 Sanctions applicable to legal persons

The following sanctions are applicable only to legal persons:

  • transfer ban;
  • playing a match without spectators;
  • playing a match on neutral territory;
  • ban on playing in a particular stadium;
  • annulment of the result of a match;
  • expulsion;
  • forfeit;
  • deduction of points;
  • relegation to a lower division

2

I doubt any team would purposely score goals against themselves as it is quite obvious and the team would be disqualified. But it is not impossible that they would purposely lose by simply not playing at their full potential, either to avoid strong teams or not to put too much stress on the players if they know they are already qualified.

It is also possible that the strongest teams would "select" which group they are affected to rather than being randomly dispatched (they have to be put in 8 different groups anyway) as Michel Platini confessed recently about the 1998 world cup (article in french).


7

TLDR:

The answer is more or less "FIFA takes the action it feels like taking". We can look at examples and speculate, but that's about it.

..with that said:


This has already happened, in a lower status international tournament, the 1998 Tiger Cup. Quotes from Wikipedia:

This tournament was marred by an unsportsmanlike match between Thailand and Indonesia during the group stage. Both teams were already assured of qualification for the semi-finals, but both teams also knew that the winners of the game would face hosts Vietnam in the semi-finals, while the losing team would face surprise group winners Singapore, who were perceived to be easier opposition, and would also avoid the inconvenience of moving the team's training base from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi for the semi-finals. The first half saw little action, with both teams barely making any attempt to score. During the second half both teams managed to score, resulting in a 2–2 score after 90 minutes. During injury time, despite two Thai defenders attempting to stop him, Indonesian defender Mursyid Effendi deliberately scored an own goal, handing Thailand a 3–2 victory.

FIFA took action against both teams

FIFA fined both teams $40,000 for "violating the spirit of the game", while Mursyid was banned from domestic football for one year and international football for life. In the semi-finals, Thailand lost to Vietnam, and Indonesia lost to Singapore. In the final, the title was to elude the hosts, as they went down 1–0 to unfancied Singapore in one of the competition's biggest shocks to date

Another answer has already quoted a lot of the Fifa disciplinary code and the Regulations for the 2018.

It turns out they have fairly wide and vaguely defined authority to enforce the "spirit of fair play".

The Fifa code of conduct describes not "playing to win" as "cheating" ones opponents and "deceiving" the crowd.

Fifa could do the same thing as in 1996, or harser, it's up to them. The most important thing to understand is that there's a huge amount of room for Fifa's discretion.

However, I think it's pretty clear that action would be taken against an extremely obvious attempt to lose.


But wait there's more.

A similar thing has happened at World Cup, in 1982.

The Disgrace of Gijón was a 1982 FIFA World Cup football match played between West Germany and Austria at the El Molinón stadium in Gijón, Spain, on 25 June 1982. The match was the last game of the first-round Group 2, with Algeria and Chile having played the day before. With the outcome of that match already decided, a win by one or two goals for West Germany would result in both them and Austria qualifying at the expense of Algeria, who had defeated West Germany in the first game. West Germany took the lead after 10 minutes, after which the remaining 80 minutes was characterized by few serious attempts by either side to score.

But this time Fifa took no action

Both sides were accused of match-fixing, although FIFA ruled that neither team broke any rules.

In my opinion this is a less blatant case of unsporting behaviour (no deliberate own goals here this time). Clearly there is a threshold. I would be interested to know if Fifa's sanction use or decision making is different for World Cups than it is for smaller tournaments, but I have no idea. It certainly means that it gets a bigger Wikipedia page. It's also worth pointing out that 1982 was 36 years ago, football was different and Fifa was different.

Once again, the most important thing to understand is it's basically up to Fifa.

Interesting fact: This match is the reason why the final pair of group matches in international tournaments always start at the same time.