Short summary: does your boss really expects 100.00000% working code as your output? Well, then he is incompetent, not you.
My honest advice would be: you cannot be perfect, so don't take it so seriously.
However, if you feel that the company is clearly trying to make you a scapegoat (so it seems), and that may hurt your professional career, resign as soon as you find equally or better paying job elsewhere. If anything, now is the time, when the economy is still strong.
I have a very strong feeling your boss is a terrible boss, especially for a software company.
In my field of work, I often come in contact with the issue of quality control. And more often than not, I hear bosses claiming that their workers are perfect (they would say, they just need to automate quality control because of some other funny reason, e.g. totaly unreasonable demands from their customers :) It seems that your boss is one of such people.
This is bollocks. People are not infallible, and certain factors make them even more prone to make errors. That's why QC exists! Your job is to catch mistakes done by other people, not to make things 100% OK, but to reduce occurrence of errors from say 99% to 99.9% If your boss does not understand then ... well, you will have many clashes with him at your current workplace.
If the errors you missed did not cause any problems in the time of the software run, then there is impossible to evaluate their impact, but it could be neglible.
If the company wants military-grade reliability, then they will need to change their process, which would probably mean employing other testers, and assign them redundant tasks (e.g. code testers cross-checking with others). Are they not willing to pay for it? Well, then they will not get 99.99%. Or 99.999% or whatever they aim for.
I think you are both the victim of the flawed production/testing process and the poor management process. But I don't think you are in position to change this.