在沒有廢物管理基礎設施的國家中處理廢物


2

在以前可持續的國家中,西方化帶來了難以控制的浪費:我們被塑料淹沒,但甚至沒有垃圾收集。顯然,結果是燃燒了全世界40%的垃圾。

在我周圍,大多數人以兩種方式處理他們未分類的廢物:

  • 埋葬在他們的土地上,那裡也是糧食種植的地方
  • 在他們的土地上露天燃燒

對可持續性有什麼建議嗎?

我猜想分類是第一步,對有機物進行堆肥。但是塑料呢?燃燒似乎是最有毒的方法,但是會不會掩埋塑料慢慢污染地面(尤其是熱帶雨水)?

3

I compost all organic material, with the exception of paper. I bury meat and animal bones bc it can attract other animals.

I have been known to re-use cardboard as a one-season box garden.

It may be true that recycling is not energetically a win in a cost benefit analysis, while there may not be a local pickup, you could ask around if there is a recycling center, or you could even build one.

When my dad lived where there was no recycling pickup, he drove us to the local dump/recycling center, we fount plenty of cool old furniture, and the it was actually a clean and approachable place, you could save your recyclables and drive them to a place that can reuse them. Creating a place like that could be the answer to the problems, and even turn a tiny profit.

If there isn't a convenient place to take recyclables, and you don't want to build a recycling center you should sort and store, and then find ways to repurpose, or re-use.

For metals you could always build a mini forge, and melt down ingots of aluminum or tin into something useful. This can be dangerous as heck, so don't go lighting fires or building forges without doing serious research. Youtube video provided to give you an idea what it looks like: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6A7w3mFcmUk

You are absolutely right that burning or burying plastic can pollute the ground. I live in the city rather close to a large university, so sometimes I drop my plastic and aluminum in their recycling bins.

Some folk knit blankets out of plastic grocery bags, and donate them to the homeless. (which sounds embarrassing, why not knit a real blanket instead of a trash blanket, and give that to them).

I think that the best thing we can do as consumers is to avoid buying unnecessary plastic. However, we cannot consume our way out of ecological devastation, and we need radical change in our government and economy if we are going to stop wasting and polluting with petroleum products like plastic. At least glass will turn back into sand, and is easy to reshape.

Let me know what you come up with, I would love to hear about any nifty re-use you can come up with.


2

The question has two general aspects. First how to collect plastics efficiently and second how to treat it afterwards.

Best supporter for collection is to generate a value that people perceive and motivate to collect, as it works with bottles, cans and paper. In these areas even poor people are motivated to collect and separate.

The treatment of plastics can be different. There are thermoplastics that can be brought into an other form by thermal treatment. In general all plastics can be heated at higher temperatures to generate e.g. diesel by pyrolysis. Here is shown how it works.

Operation of factory and sale of diesel generate values that must be used to pay collection of waste. Unfortunately in many countries the generated values dilute by corruption and such projects fail. Especially in poor countries this cycle of value should be financed and controlled by UN organisations, instead of financing sophisticated, highly developed projects to catch the plastics out of the seas.

Best of course would be to avoid artificial plastics at all and only allow plastics that rot in a short period of time.