I found a comparison here. My take on reading that is the following:
Now I'm not sure if glass beats aluminum in a total energy consumed to make say a 12 ounce container in that perhaps the amount of energy required for glass is so much less than aluminum that using 70% of the glass number still beats 5% of the aluminum number. However, with no facts to back this up, my intuition tells me aluminum would still win in a side by side comparison.
Interestingly glass and aluminum have the same specific heat or close to it (about 0.2 J/g) but the mass of he container is much different, and aluminum has a much lower melting point (about half that F of Glass).
Estimating weight of a 12 oz beer bottle at 140 grams (that's prob. low), and going by internet searches to find that empty soda cans weigh about 14 grams, we get a sense that the amount of energy required to bring to melting point is about 5% that of the aluminum can than the glass bottle.
140 * 2700 * 0.2 = approx 75600 J to melt the glass bottle discarding enthalpy of fusion (which iirc doesn't affect glass).
14 * 1100 * 0.2 = approx 3080 J to reach melting point plus 398 * 14 = 5572 J to melt, approx 9kJ to melt the soda can vs 76kJ to melt the glass bottle.
As are all answers this is necessarily incomplete. It isn't clear to me what else goes into recycling either and whether there are other embedded complexity costs, but that's a base line.
Before plastic bottles became popular, recycle meant something different than today. It used to mean 'reuse' not 'remanufacture'. I would think reuse of glass bottles would be the most sustainable. Although I'm not aware of any soda manufacturers that reuse bottles in the US, there are dairies that reuse milk bottles now that glass milk bottles are making a comeback at local dairies.
When I lived in IL I was told that any broken glass went into the landfill. How much glass do you think is not broken when it is dumped into the recycling garbage truck? I think it is a terrible waste of energy to not recycle glass. Here is a good site for information: http://www.greenlivingtips.com/articles/182/1/Recycling-energy-savings.html Glass, plastic, and aluminum are discussed
What's best is if you pipe the water into your house, making for huge savings in transport costs.
Now, while this doesn't really apply to fancy things like pop and beer, it's really, really better to not drink bottled water at all. Systemically speaking, the rate that bottles and cans are actually recycled is dismal at around 15%. So in the end the difference in recycling costs don't really matter that much anyway.