來自小行星撞擊的水蒸氣要花多長時間才能回落?


6

在我的故事中,一個大型企業聯合體發現了26公里寬的新彗星進入內部太陽系。由於氣候變化災難已經更加嚴重,地球迫切需要水(現在想想+百年失控的資本主義貪婪)。特別是氣候變化災難對溫度的影響,資本家對內陸含水層的貪婪以及由於海平面上升引起的沿海水域鹽度的增加。

在地球附近無數的地方,他們正在開採水:月亮和地球附近的一些小行星。但是,這件事是巨大的,及時的,而且由於他們的貪婪,這些大公司認為他們可以取得重大勝利。

他們試圖用重力拖拉機將彗星帶入繞月球軌道。在幾年的時間裡,他們設法做到這一點,但拖拉機不僅帶來了冰球,而且還帶來了骯髒的岩石和冰球-一塊碎石堆,堆放著約三十米,幾百米到幾公里不等的岩心。。地球和月球的引力完成了將物體拉開的過程,最大的十四塊岩石撞擊了地球。

鑑於地球是一個水上世界,在海洋中遭受的打擊最大,並將數百吉字節的水蒸氣排放到空氣中。那些襲擊土地的人遭受的損害最為嚴重,一對夫婦襲擊了含水層,不僅將灰燼和泥土扔向了空中,而且還向海裡撒了更多的水。

根據sources的各種數據,大氣層的質量約為5.3x10 ^ 15吉字節,即5.3億吉字節。

根據USGS在the water cycle頁上列出的事實,大氣中的平均水量為地球上所有水的0.001%,即1,386,000立方千米。Wiki的立方米水約為一公噸。因此,一立方公里的水將是一個千兆噸。鑑於先前的事實,地球的大氣層中應該有約138.6萬千兆噸的水。

我知道溫室氣體,空氣中的水蒸氣為complicated。但是由於空氣中所有的灰塵和灰燼,首先它們必須經過很長的nuclear/volcanic winter。在那之後,在那之後以及很長一段時間以後,我預計它將像瘋了似的下雨。因此,問題是所有這些千兆噸的灰分和水蒸氣從大氣中出來需要多長時間?吐出的水量僅佔大氣中總水量的百萬分之幾,但我不得不猜測它的突然發生會對短期和長期產生某種影響。

另一個複雜的因素,我找不到任何參考,那就是1公里長的撞擊器是否會受到重擊而導致任何mantel plume。各種參考文獻都提到了這麼大的隕石坑到底有多深。

第三個複雜因素-瓦礫堆中的大部分仍然足夠大,足以引起大量的空氣爆炸和地面撞擊,從而積聚更多的水和灰燼。

因此,在所有情況下-灰燼需要多長時間才能沉降出來?以及所有這些水蒸氣要花多長時間才能下雨?

1

Kinetic Energy = (1/2)MV²

Where:

M is the mass of the asteroid just before it strikes the earth V is the velocity of the asteroid just before it strikes the earth

For example, consider an asteroid that is one kilometre in diameter and weighs 1.4 billion tonnes (M = 1.4×10^12 kilograms), and is traveling at 20 kilometres per second (V = 20,000 m/s). The kinetic energy would be equal to (1/2)×1.4×10^12×(20,000)² = 2.8×10^20 Joules.

14 hit earth (1 in land 13 in sea)

so it 13 x 2.8×10^20 = 3.64 x 10^21 Joules or 3.64 x 10^19 KiloJoules

ΔQ=cmΔt specific heat capacity of water(which equals 4.18710^3 J/(kg℃)) Average sea temperature is 30°C It is given by the equation Q=mL

Q= energy input m=mass of the matter to vaporize L=the specific latent heat

According to Wikipedia the value of the latent heat of vaporization of water is: L=2264.705 kj/kg

3.64 x 10^19 = (2264.705 x M) + (M x 4187 x (100-30))

3.64 x 10^19 = (2,264.705 x M) + (M x 4,187 x (100-30)) 3.64 x 10^19 = 295,354.705 M

M = 123,241,646,006,621 Kilogram of water

M = 123 Gigatons of water will be convert up into the atmosphere

1 mile² thunderstorm cloud = 72,000 tons

15 mile² thunderstorm cloud = 1,080,000 tons

15 mile² thunderstorm cloud last 30 mins

so our 123 Gigatons will continue to form into 123 millions of 15 mile² thunderstorm cloud above initial impact point and spreading around which take 30 mins to empty their bucket back down to earth

(123,000,000 x 30 )/( 60 x 24 x 365 ) =7020 years

but that is single one at a time which is not how reality work ,the thunderstorm would formed and spread faster

earth surface area is 510,100,000 km² or 196,950,711 mile²

13 million of 15 mile² thunderstorm cloud can fit in that

so.. if the asteroid hit and spread evenly (13 of 1 km diameter asteroid hit around the earth)

it will be downpour for (123 x 10^6 / 13 x 10^6) x 30 mins

5 hours..

but if compact into certain area say your capitalism corp pull it down to sea nearby USA (easy for them to go catch those rain by predicted that the wind will bring those thunderstorm cloud into land)and the said 13 asteroids spreading impact zone about the same size as USA outside the shore (with 1 miscalculated landing on New york instead)

9.834 million km² or 3.8 million mile²

200,000 of 15 mile² thunderstorm cloud can fit in that

it will be 123,000,000 / 200,000 x 30 mins so vaguely about 13-20 days

so if you want a good period of time for your story conflict like "capitalism corp covering up their mess" need about 3-4 month or so then just triple asteroid mass (or the impact zone must be more compact / or throw in more meteor or increased it mass)

but if you want something like a year of raining oh well you'll need quite bigger asteroids to do the job

(btw the dust from only 1 asteroid hitting land would dispersed faster giving it'll be raining a lot so those dust probably last around 30% of the time period)

Source

15 mile² thunderstorm cloud > https://wxguys.ssec.wisc.edu/2011/09/12/how-much-condensed-liquid-water-is-in-a-cubic-mile-of-fog/

asteroid energy > https://www.real-world-physics-problems.com/asteroid-impact.html

Sea temperature > https://www.seatemperature.org/

calculate water to stream > https://socratic.org/questions/calculate-the-amount-of-heat-required-to-convert-45-0-g-of-water-at-43-0-c-to-st#:~:text=Explanation%3A,the%20water%20to%20100%20degrees.&text=c%3D4187%20Joules%20per%20kilogram,specific%20heat%20capacity%20of%20water.

how long thunder storm last >https://www.google.com/search?newwindow=1&rlz=1C1OKWM_enTH866TH867&hl=en&biw=899&bih=923&sxsrf=ALeKk00Q2Jx2nBOHGsRrabrk60l9YppPQA%3A1594779746751&ei=YmgOX8C0LYfn9QOrq5KgAQ&q=how+long+thunderstorm+last&oq=how+long+thunderstr&gs_lcp=CgZwc3ktYWIQAxgAMgYIABAWEB4yBggAEBYQHjIICAAQFhAKEB4yBggAEBYQHjIGCAAQFhAeMggIABAWEAoQHjIICAAQFhAKEB4yBggAEBYQHjoECCMQJzoFCAAQkQI6BAgAEEM6CAgAELEDEIMBOgsILhCxAxDHARCjAjoCCC46BQguEJECOgUILhCxAzoCCABQi-0CWNmWA2CZnQNoAnAAeACAAXCIAdIMkgEEMjAuMZgBAKABAaoBB2d3cy13aXo&sclient=psy-ab


3

Earth is in dire need of water because of an already worsening climate change disaster (think now + a hundred years of out of control capitalist greed). Especially the climate change disaster's effect on temperature, capitalist greed against inland aquifers and increasing salinity in coastal aquafers because of sea rise.

I appreciate that you are building a world with such problems in mind, both the physics/logistic one and the humanitarian one. However, I think bringing more water from space is not the solution. Allow me to do a frame challenge.

Your comet will have 9.2 × 1018 kg. That's about 1% of the mass of the ice on the South Pole. You would elevate the oceans by the same amount we would if we just melted 1% of the Antarctic at once.

Consider that the total mass of the oceans is around The Earth's oceans have about 1.4 × 1021 kg, which is three orders of magnitude more than the comet. Your comet will flood coastal aquifers even more while causing no perceptible decrease in salinity. You'll just be putting mangroves underwater, where they will rot and release greenhouse gases.

Proper management of the water we already have here is the path to saving ecosystems. Merely shoving more water into it just makes things worse.